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BERLIN, GERMANY - APRIL 28: Beekeeper Eva Fisher (L) and friend Chloe Hervell, a highschool exchange student from Utah, do a weekly checkup on Eva's four bee colonies next to an elementary school on April 28, 2013 in Berlin, Germany. Local beekeepers claim their yearly loss rates within their bee populations has gone from an average of 10% per year to 30% per year over the last 10 years, though they are unsure whether the cause lies with a mite and a virus it might be spreading or with the increased use of certain pesticides by local farmers. According to a recent report prepared by Greenpeace seven pesticides currently in use in Europe present a real danger to bees. Bees are essential in nature in pollenating a wide variety of plants and trees.
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Beekeepers, also known as apiarists, manage and maintain colonies of honey bees that produce honey and provide pollination services.


The primary duty of a beekeeper is to keep hives healthy and productive so they are able to yield honey and related byproducts such as beeswax.

A beekeeper is responsible for assessing the health of the hive, checking for mite infestations, monitoring and treating the hive when health problems arise, and maintaining detailed records of health, medication administration, and honey production.

A beekeeper may also be responsible for preparing bees and equipment for pollination activities, feeding bees, cleaning and constructing hives, raising and replacing queen bees, dividing colonies when necessary, and replacing combs. Some beekeepers may work directly with honey processing and bottling equipment.

Beekeepers must work long hours during the warmer months, spending most of their time outdoors in variable weather conditions. Work may be required on nights, weekends, and holidays. Beekeepers must wear a variety of special protective clothing such as veils, gloves, and suits; they also must properly light and use bee smokers and other hive tools to safely access the products that the bees produce.

Career Options

Beekeepers can have small hobbyist operations or be a part of large commercial production farms. Beekeepers may also specialize in a specific area of interest such as honey production, pollination services for fruit and vegetable farmers, or bee breeding.

Beekeepers may also find work with some elementary schools or 4-H programs, where children have the chance to learn beekeeping skills. There are additional opportunities in education at the college level, with employment available through animal science departments and university extension agencies.

The bee industry is especially strong in countries such as China, Argentina, Turkey, and the United States, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). There are many international opportunities with major commercial operations if a beekeeper wishes to travel and work overseas.

Education and Training

New beekeeping enthusiasts can gain valuable experience by apprenticing with experienced beekeepers before venturing out on their own. Large commercial bee farms also may offer evening or weekend beekeeping classes that are open to the public.

There are a number of beekeeping events across the country, but one of the largest educational events is the North American Beekeeping Conference & Trade Show put on by the American Beekeeping Federation (ABF). This popular national event is held each January and boasts a regular attendance of over 600 beekeeping enthusiasts. The conference features a variety of educational sessions for novices and professionals, a trade show, and the American Honey Show.

Many colleges and universities offer short course seminars on beekeeping for novices or master courses for professionals. Two such programs can be found at Cornell University and the University of Florida. Cornell University offers beekeeping workshops at the apprentice, journeyman, and master levels. The University of Florida offers a two day “Bee College” seminar as well as the Florida Master Beekeeper Program (MBP) as part of their Honey Bee Research and Extension Lab. The MBP consists of four levels, the highest being Master Craftsman Beekeeper.

While a degree is not required in order to work in this profession, many beekeepers have an undergraduate degree in an animal science or biological science related field. It is also possible to pursue a graduate level degree related to beekeeping. Groups such as the Foundation for the Preservation of Honey Bees offer graduate scholarships to be applied to a student’s bee research. A master’s or Ph.D. degree related to beekeeping can be pursued in areas such as Agricultural Management and Entomology.


Income for a beekeeper can vary widely based on experience, education, and type of employment (i.e., hobbyist or commercial production). Simplyhired.com cites an average salary of $52,000 for beekeepers in 2011. Part time or hobbyist bee keepers may average around $20,000 per year, generally tending to their bees on nights and weekends while primarily holding a job in another field.

Additional income may be earned if a beekeeper produces and markets honey or beeswax products. Another earning option is selling starter or replacement bees to other beekeeping operations.

Job Outlook

The number of beekeepers is expected to show continued growth over the next decade, as more and more backyard beekeepers are expected to enter the field or increase the size of their operations. While the industry must continue to deal with threats such as Africanized bees, mites, and Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), interest in beekeeping and byproducts such as honey and wax should remain strong.

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