Wildlife veterinarians are practitioners that specialize in treating many types of wildlife including birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.Duties
Wildlife veterinarians are licensed animal health professionals that are trained to treat a variety of species. Wildlife vets treat many species of mammals, birds, and reptiles. Wildlife vets may work either in an office setting or in the field.
The typical routine for a wildlife vet may include sedating animals for exams, performing exams, giving vaccinations, taking blood samples, administering fluids, performing surgeries when needed, prescribing medications, evaluating and treating wounds, taking x-rays and ultrasounds, cleaning teeth, assisting with captive breeding programs, and providing “intensive care” for very young animals abandoned by their parents.
Wildlife veterinarians often work in conjunction with wildlife rehabilitators at a rehabilitation facility. They also must be able to interact and communicate effectively with veterinary technicians, wildlife officials, and members of the public.
It is not unusual for vets to work some nights, weekends, and holidays. Some wildlife veterinarians have schedules that involve “on call” time for treating emergency cases, and it is not uncommon for vets to put in 50 hours of work (or more) per week. Some wildlife veterinarians conduct research or treat patients in the field, so travel may be involved for some practitioners.Career Options
Vets may work primarily as small animal, equine, or large animal vets and combine that career path with wildlife work. Other wildlife vets may choose to work exclusively with exotic animals or native wildlife species.
Wildlife vets may work in education (as college professors or biology teachers), veterinary pharmaceutical sales, the military, government organizations, research facilities or labs, wildlife rehabilitation centers, zoological parks, museums, or aquariums.Education and Training
All wildlife veterinarians graduate with a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree, which is achieved after completion of a demanding course of study which covers both small and large animal species. There are currently 28 colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States that offer a DVM degree to their graduates.
The Tufts University veterinary program is well known for its Wildlife Medicine Program. The Tufts Wildlife Clinic affords veterinary students the opportunity to work on over 1600 native species patients each year. These animals are brought in for treatment by fish and game wardens, local rehabilitators, and members of the public.
UC Davis also offers access to its Wildlife Health Center as part of its veterinary medicine program. Veterinary educational options involving wildlife are plentiful at UC Davis. Options include a DVM degree with an emphasis in wildlife health, a 2 year post-DVM Masters degree focused on wildlife health and epidemiology, and a post-DVM residency in zoo medicine and pathology.
After graduation, aspiring vets must pass the North American Veterinary Licensing Exam (NAVLE) to become professionally licensed to practice medicine. Each year approximately 2,500 veterinarians enter veterinary field. At the end of 2010, the most recent AVMA employment survey available, there were 95,430 practicing U.S. veterinarians. Only a small percentage of these vets focus their practice on wildlife or exotic animal medicine.Professional Associations
The American Veterinary Medical Association is one of the most prominent veterinary organizations, representing over 80,000 practitioners. The vast majority of practicing U.S. veterinarians maintain a membership with the AVMA.
The European Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZW) is a well known international wildlife association, with 600 members hailing from 48 different countries. The EAZW publishes professional papers and hosts scientific meetings each year to promote advances in the field of wildlife health.Salary
The median wage for all veterinarians was approximately $82,040 ($39.44 per hour) in 2011, according to a salary survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Earnings in the 2010 BLS salary survey varied from less than $49,910 for the lowest 10% of all veterinarians to more than $145,230 for the top 10% of all veterinarians.
Veterinarians who are board certified in a particular specialty area (ophthalmology, oncology, surgery, etc) can expect to pull in higher salaries due to their extensive experience and education. As of 2010, AVMA data indicated there were 133 board certified specialists in the field of zoological medicine.Job Outlook
According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the veterinary profession will expand much more quickly than the average rate for all positions—almost 36% from 2008 to 2018. The extremely limited number of graduates from vet programs ensures strong demand for new vets entering the field.
With interest in wildlife and conservation steadily increasing, a growing number of veterinarians are expected to enter the field of wildlife medicine.